I'm no expert, but here's six things that seem worth considering...
#1 Proverbs claims to be by King Solomon.
Like the Song of Songs, and stands as one of the three books (with Ecclesiastes) recognised as being by David's son, though the authorship of all three would be disputed by many. These aren't the words of any old wise person, but of the King. Words for a nation, words for the community - but words that immediately carry a Messianic direction. It's going to be about Jesus.
#2 It offers itself as a book of riddles, asking who can solve the problem!
Intriguing. The sayings are easy to fit in your mouth but rather chewy, requiring some meditation and careful application. After a while one has to ask whether we're meant to just apply them straight to ourselves or not... the final riddle is the riddle of the wife in chapter 31. Who can find such a woman?
#3 The book comes in five parts, like the Psalms and Pentateuch.
Five books of Moses, of David, of Solomon. You have to ask why? Part 2 and 3 appear to be a jumble of sayings. Some even suggesting, there is purpose earlier and then Solomon gave up. No attempt is made in the middle sections to collate themes, and so tempting as it is to extract the proverbs from their contexts perhaps they are to be chewed upon as they come? That's not to say - don't collate the themes - it's in the image of God for us to seek The Scheme of Things, but before we schematise, let's hear Scripture as it comes.
Some of these are attributed to Hezekiah's men, suggesting at least some later editing beyond the days of Solomon. Divine inspiration is big enough to handle this. Parts 4 and 5 are brief and more coherently composed. Similarly divine inspiration can handle sections of the Proverbs being borrowed from other wisdom sources in Egypt and beyond, and included where they are in the context of this book in its five parts, and within the Canon. All creation sings of Christ, but we only recognise its song by the word of Christ.
#4 Chapters 1-9 are a coherent proverbial story.
"What do you know when you know a story?", it has been asked. A lot in the case of Proverbs!
The king teaches a prince about who to marry, primarily. With Solomon evidently not being the Messianic Son of David, we have to ask whether his son will be... or his son... or his son. This is a classic gospel story. Will this son be like the First Adam and give his heart to folly, or will he be a second and last Adam who could give himself to Lady Wisdom? A similar question can be asked of The Blessed Man in David's Penta-songbook. Is he so wise that he is the wisdom that was with the Father before creation itself? The Son will take a bride... but who? This is gospel. The righteous one will be blessed. This is gospel. The cross may not be fully spelled out - though it is unsubtly implicit in all the talk of marriage. The stage is well and truly set. The Christ is the Wise one, and those who trust him become wise in him. Christ is our wisdom. His name is Jesus.
(Much credit to Peter Leithart's The Dramatic Structure of Proverbs.)
Proverbs 8 is vital to understand Christ. In the early church and perhaps as recently as Spurgeon and others, it has been obvious that this referred to Christ. The heretic Arius said it implied that Christ was created, to which the church fathers said it means Christ is "begotten not made!" - and then in our day we say it's not even about Christ at all... let us recover the one at the heart of all the Scriptures.
#5 Who is the Proverbs 31 wife?
Is she a model for all women - a high capacity stay-home Mum running a global business from the household? A soul-destroying portrait of perfection or a source of inspiration? Or is she rather The bride of the Wise Son? Might the story climax with his spotless bride? A portrait of the church? Is the answer to the riddle - the Son who gave himself to win a bride for himself?
#6 First The Son, then us in the Son.
Because the kings son is wise then there is wisdom for us to follow as we entrust ourselves to the son who was tested and disciplined and remained faithful. As we live in him with changed hearts and relationships, our hearts, our words, our work, our relationships begin to become more wise. Not simplistically rule keeping but wisely following Jesus, bearing much fruit in him. Wise living and Spirit-filled living coincide. Live by a list of Proverbs and you cut yourself off from Christ, live in Christ and Proverbs are rocket-fuel in your renewed heart, love languages, patterns by which to be entrusted to Christ, to live with his people and to serve all who bear his image in his world.